The Lumad are people from various ethnic groups in Mindanao island. Residing in their ancestral lands,  they are often evicted and displaced due to the Moro people 's claim on the same territory.  The Lumad have lost parts of their ancestral land due to a failure to understand the modern land tenure system.  To counter this, the Lumad established schools in their communities, supplying essential knowledge for the tribe members that would protect their rights, property and culture.  However, the Lumad communities are located in mountains that are distant from urban areas. These areas are also the location sites of armed conflict between the New People's Army (NPA) and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) . Caught in the conflict, the Lumad people's education, property, and security are endangered because of the increasing amount of military activity by the armed parties.  Increasing military activity have eventually led to the displacement of the communities to shelter sites.  Anxiety continues to grow among the Lumad with the escalation of armed conflict and detainment of community leaders (tribe leaders and teachers) labelled as rebels by the military.  Alternative schools within the communities (aided by NGOs and universities) face concerns of closing down or demolition of their property, with some buildings converted by the military for their use.  Lumad leaders and tribesmen, having experienced political detention due to false suspicions as well as the displacement of their tribes from their areas, have demanded respect for their human rights. 
WWII hastened acculturation because lowlanders evacuated to the mountains to escape the Japanese. After the war, government homestead program encouraged families from the northern islands to settle in Mindanao. Each homesteader was offered “a farm plot of 16 acres for the first year, farming materials, a carabao, and farm implements” (Elken 1966:163). Although the Manobo themselves were offered the same privileges, their elders initially ignored the offer and, thorugh their council of datu forbade their people from cooperating. However, the younger ones, especially those who had been educated, joined the program in defiance of their elders. Furthermore, logging companies caused roads to be built in the mountains, and this facilitated interaction with the lowlanders, especially since the trucks of these companies usually offered them free rides.