Upon endocytic PRR binding, actin - myosin cytoskeletal rearrangement adjacent to the plasma membrane occurs in a way that endocytoses the plasma membrane containing the PRR-PAMP complex, and the microbe. Phosphatidylinositol and Vps34 - Vps15 - Beclin1 signalling pathways have been implicated to traffic the endocytosed phagosome to intracellular lysosomes , where fusion of the phagosome and the lysosome produces a phagolysosome. The reactive oxygen species , superoxides and hypochlorite bleach within the phagolysosomes then kill microbes inside the phagocyte.
Yes. In instances of severe stress (emotional or physical), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), neurotensin and substance P are released. Among other things, CRH can induce mast cell degranulation (of note, CRH does not directly induce histamine release via degranulation). CRH also causes increased expression of the IgE receptor on mast cells, which increases the likelihood of being stimulated and thus degranulation (this may cause histamine release). In tandem, neurotensin and substance P increases the expression of the CRHR-1 receptor for CRH on mast cells so that they are more sensitive to CRH. Likewise, neurotensin and substance P act on mast cells via receptors to induce degranulation (this causes histamine release). As a result of this degranulation, histamine and other mediators are present to inhibit the action of ACTH, which would otherwise increase blood sugar (via the production of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine).